Difference between revisions of "Ethiopian Gendarmerie (Italian Empire)"

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{{Infobox military unit
 
{{Infobox military unit
 
| unit_name =Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps
 
| unit_name =Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps
| native_name =ሐበሻ ፖሊስ<br>Häbäsha Polis<br>Corpo della Gendarmeria Etiope
+
| native_name =ሐበሻ ፖሊስ<br>Häbäsha Zebagna<br>Corpo della Gendarmeria Etiope
 
| image =File:Bandiera Gendarmeria Etiope.png
 
| image =File:Bandiera Gendarmeria Etiope.png
 
| alt =150px
 
| alt =150px
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The '''Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps''' (Ahmaric: ''ሐበሻ ፖሊስ'', ''Häbäsha Polis'', literally meaning "Ethiopian Police"; Italian: ''Corpo della Gendarmeria Etiope'') is the main police force in the Ethiopian Empire. The Ethiopian security is a complex matter due to the social, ethnic and religious complexity of the population of the Ethiopian Social Republic. The Ministry of Interior is in charge of handling security and policing affairs through the Directorate General of Public Security and through the Ethiopian Gendarmerie.<br>
+
The '''Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps''' (Ahmaric: ''ሐበሻ ፖሊስ'', ''Häbäsha Zebagna'', literally meaning "Ethiopian Guard"; Italian: ''Corpo della Gendarmeria Etiope'') is the main police force in the Ethiopian Empire. The Ethiopian security is a complex matter due to the social, ethnic and religious complexity of the population of the Ethiopian Social Republic. The Ministry of Interior is in charge of handling security and policing affairs through the Directorate General of Public Security and through the Ethiopian Gendarmerie.<br>
 
Both Interior officials and Gendarmes are part of all-Ethiopia services and, although enlisted Gendarmes after their conscription can be expected to serve in their native Province, this can never be assumed for granted, as both rewarding and punitive transfers are often ordered; officers cannot expect any fixed assignment. The all-Ethiopian nature is emphasized by the aggressive meritocracy in upper levels.<br>
 
Both Interior officials and Gendarmes are part of all-Ethiopia services and, although enlisted Gendarmes after their conscription can be expected to serve in their native Province, this can never be assumed for granted, as both rewarding and punitive transfers are often ordered; officers cannot expect any fixed assignment. The all-Ethiopian nature is emphasized by the aggressive meritocracy in upper levels.<br>
 
The Gendarmerie is often accused of protecting landowners against peasants in the countryside. A military atmosphere prevails - dress codes, behavior standards, and rank differentiations are strictly adhered to. Esprit de corps is inculcated with regular ceremonies and institutionalization of rituals such as applauding personnel dispatched to or returning from assignments and formally welcoming senior officers to the mess hall at all meals.
 
The Gendarmerie is often accused of protecting landowners against peasants in the countryside. A military atmosphere prevails - dress codes, behavior standards, and rank differentiations are strictly adhered to. Esprit de corps is inculcated with regular ceremonies and institutionalization of rituals such as applauding personnel dispatched to or returning from assignments and formally welcoming senior officers to the mess hall at all meals.
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== General organization ==
 
== General organization ==
The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is a complex organization, structured in order to be able to function indpendently and to perform a wide range of missions. The Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps is a military corps subordinate to the Directorate General of Public Security and organised on a territorial basis for law-enforcement missions. The territorial organization represents the core of the institution; outside the territorial organization, there are three special Divisions: the Mobile Division (mass maneuver and territorial support, based in Harare), the Specialist Units Division (specialist investigative skills, based in Bahir Dar), the Central Investigative Division (organized crime and subversive activities, based in Awasa) and the Training Division.<br>
+
The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is a complex organization, structured in order to be able to function indpendently and to perform a wide range of missions. The Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps is a military corps subordinate to the Directorate General of Public Security and organised on a territorial basis for law-enforcement missions. The territorial organization represents the core of the institution; outside the territorial organization, there are three special Divisions: the Specialist Units Division (specialist investigative skills, based in Bahir Dar), the Mobile Division (mass maneuver and territorial support, based in Harare) and the Central Investigative Division (organized crime and subversive activities, based in Auasa).<br>
 
The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is in charge for all policing affairs, with the Provincial Special Police Forces being auxiliary bodies.
 
The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is in charge for all policing affairs, with the Provincial Special Police Forces being auxiliary bodies.
  
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The Deputy Chief of Staff assists the Chief of Staff, directs the provision of expenditure items to of the Heads of the Department, presides and coordinates the activity of the working and study groups for the study of problems of primary interest to the Gendarmerie. The Deputy Chief of Staff directly manages the National Recruitment Centre.
 
The Deputy Chief of Staff assists the Chief of Staff, directs the provision of expenditure items to of the Heads of the Department, presides and coordinates the activity of the working and study groups for the study of problems of primary interest to the Gendarmerie. The Deputy Chief of Staff directly manages the National Recruitment Centre.
  
== Central organisation ==
+
== Central Investigative Division ==
Directly subordinate to the Commandant-General, investigative bodies tasked with special duties operate at the central level:
+
Directly subordinate to the Commandant-General, the Central Investigative Division contains investigative bodies tasked with special duties operate at the central level:
* Central Security Investigation Department: it has the role in directing police criminal activities through Provincial branch offices;
+
* Central Security Investigation Unit: it has the role in directing police criminal activities through Provincial branch offices;
* Police Intelligence and Security Department: it has the role in carrying out police couterinsurgency actitivities;
+
* Police Intelligence and Security Unit (commonly known as ''Mist‘ir Zebagna'', i.e. "secret guard", shifting from the old designation of patrols): it has the role in carrying out police couterinsurgency actitivities;
* Central Economic Inveestigation Department: it investigates economic crimes, particularly smuggling and other forms of illicit commerce;
+
* Central Economic Inveestigation Unit (commonly known as ''Arada  Zebagna'', i.e. "market guard"): it investigates economic crimes, particularly smuggling and other forms of illicit commerce;
 
* Fascist Operations Coordinating Committee: it is a Fascist Front body, which cooperates with the Gendarmerie in battling smuggling and economic sabotage.  
 
* Fascist Operations Coordinating Committee: it is a Fascist Front body, which cooperates with the Gendarmerie in battling smuggling and economic sabotage.  
The Central Security Investigation Department is subdivided into its four Groups: Central Information Group, Crime Prevention Group, Criminal Investigation Group and Special Security Group (in charge for political police).
+
The Central Security Investigation Unit is subdivided into its four Groups: Central Information Group, Crime Prevention Group, Criminal Investigation Group and Special Security Group (in charge for political police).
  
== Mobile organisation ==
+
== Mobile Division ==
 
[[File:Gendarmeria Etiope Mobile.jpg|thumbnail|right|The Mobile Emergency Gendarmerie is always deployed in robust units.]]
 
[[File:Gendarmeria Etiope Mobile.jpg|thumbnail|right|The Mobile Emergency Gendarmerie is always deployed in robust units.]]
The Mobile Emergency Gendarmerie is the paramilitary branch of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie tasked with the maintenance of public order, quelling riots and providing mobile and cohesive support to the territorial organization or other branches of the Gendarmerie or of the local units of the Fascist Guard (the Ethiopian branch of the M.V.S.N.). The mobile organization consists of several Battalions deployed in the various Provinces and Autonomous Cities. Battalions depend on the relevant Regiment (responsible of providing administrative support and management), which are in turn grouped into the Mobile Emergency Police Force Command (Division level).<br>
+
The Mobile Emergency Gendarmerie is the paramilitary branch of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie tasked with the maintenance of public order, quelling riots and providing mobile and cohesive support to the territorial organization or other branches of the Gendarmerie or of the local units of the Fascist Guard (the Ethiopian branch of the M.V.S.N.). The mobile organization consists of several Battalions deployed in the various Provinces and Autonomous Cities. Battalions depend on the relevant Regiment (responsible of providing administrative support and management), which are in turn grouped into the Mobile Division.<br>
 
As of 2015 there are 24 Battalions grouped into 8 Regiments; alongside, there is the 9th Regiment.
 
As of 2015 there are 24 Battalions grouped into 8 Regiments; alongside, there is the 9th Regiment.
 
* 1st Regiment "''Ogaden''" - headquartered in Giggiga.
 
* 1st Regiment "''Ogaden''" - headquartered in Giggiga.

Latest revision as of 12:03, 25 March 2020

Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps
ሐበሻ ፖሊስ
Häbäsha Zebagna
Corpo della Gendarmeria Etiope
150px
Gendarmerie War Flag
Active 1971-present
Country Etiopia Ufficiosa.png Empire of Ethiopia
Allegiance Italian Empire Flag RSI - ISR.jpg Italian Empire
Type Gendarmerie
Size 160,000
Nickname Zabagna
Commanders
Current
commander
Lt. Gen. Tewdros Adhanem


The Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps (Ahmaric: ሐበሻ ፖሊስ, Häbäsha Zebagna, literally meaning "Ethiopian Guard"; Italian: Corpo della Gendarmeria Etiope) is the main police force in the Ethiopian Empire. The Ethiopian security is a complex matter due to the social, ethnic and religious complexity of the population of the Ethiopian Social Republic. The Ministry of Interior is in charge of handling security and policing affairs through the Directorate General of Public Security and through the Ethiopian Gendarmerie.
Both Interior officials and Gendarmes are part of all-Ethiopia services and, although enlisted Gendarmes after their conscription can be expected to serve in their native Province, this can never be assumed for granted, as both rewarding and punitive transfers are often ordered; officers cannot expect any fixed assignment. The all-Ethiopian nature is emphasized by the aggressive meritocracy in upper levels.
The Gendarmerie is often accused of protecting landowners against peasants in the countryside. A military atmosphere prevails - dress codes, behavior standards, and rank differentiations are strictly adhered to. Esprit de corps is inculcated with regular ceremonies and institutionalization of rituals such as applauding personnel dispatched to or returning from assignments and formally welcoming senior officers to the mess hall at all meals.

History

During the rule of Emperor Adam Seged Iyasue in 1774 A.D. the police force was given the task of safeguarding the security and peace of the capital city by preventing thefts. The rule of Emperor Tewodros, Yohannes and Menilik II saw the continuation of security forces albeit different titles.
The 160,000-strong Gendarmerie was established in 1971, by amalgamating the former Carabinieri forces deployed in Ethiopia, the Colonial Police Corps, Askari units and bands, and the security services of the major cities. Since its establishment, the Gendarmerie has been sometimes an unreliable organization (especially in the first years, when the last loyalist Abyssinians were still serving) but it had never been an overtly rebellious corps. In the 1976 Soviet-backed revolt and coup attempt, the combat forces of the Gendarmerie actively supported the National Republican Guard in crushing down rebel nests in Addis Ababa and in Dire Daua. Lieutenant General Tadesse Werede Tesfay is the current Commandant, the fourth of Ethiopian descent, while Italian Ethiopian officers are still a significant part of the officers corps.

Ethiopian security strategy: a twofold approach

Ethiopian is exposed to several terrorism, guerilla warfare, insurgency and rebellion threats, both internal and external. In order to address these issues, the Ethiopian security establishment developed, over the years, a peculiar strategy which has proven to be both feasible and successful. The Ethiopian security strategy is a medium/long-term solution, unsuitable for sudden emergencies, but instead seeking to gradually weaken rebellion by engraining anti-insurgency into the very local cultural attributes and historical legacy of toleration of societies that comprise Ethiopia. The Ethiopian approach is based on trust-building, and sharing a common vision but mostly on principle of subsidiarity, which requires that all external actors should be back-up supporters of efforts by internal forces and local communities in the fight against terrorism. This approach also supports the building of close-knit neighbourhood associations that provide community-based peace and security with effective and permanent oversight by the state.
The Ethiopian doctrine on counterrorism and counterinsurgency stands out for two elements: supremacy of politics and struggle to dry out the terrorists' basin one one hand, and achieving peace and national unity through the gradual expansion of pockets of stability, legitimacy, law, and order in rebel-held areas.

Politics over military operations

The first element refers to supremacy of politics over the military components of the counterrorism and counterinsurgency strategies. Under the Ethiopian approach, politics must precede and lead both the military and criminal justice systems. The focus of the supremacy of politics lies with the objective of liberating areas for local communities to organise, arm themselves in local village militias framed within the Fascist Guard (Ahmaric: የፋሺሽት ጠባቂ Yefashīshiti T’ebak, Italian: Guardia Fascista), and fight back against terrorists. Such local militias are supported, according to the specific needs, by the Ethiopian National Imperial Guard or by the Ethiopian Gendarmerie. The political work involves mainly consultation between the Ethiopian Fascist Front (and its ethnic-based branches) with local communities and helping them in organising and arming themselves under the umbrella of the Fascist Guard in order to fight back against threats. The second element refers to focusing on traditional narratives of solidarity, thereby promoting hope against despair, both material and spiritual ones.

Legitimacy building

While traditional and military-based counterinsurgency strategies focus on controlling territories and populations, the Ethiopian approach focuses on public deliberations, training, arming, and establishing administrative units in areas liberated from insurgents in order to ensure their own peace and security, under the aegis of the State. This strategy directly relates to the governance and delivery of basic services in order to build hope within communities and security to sustain their own livelihoods. The approach is a gradualist one.

Military side

Given the priority of political and sustainment operations, the political work and community development advances before military operations and the counterinsurgency military must always follow and support the political and civilian officials. Actual military operations do have a place in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency, but only in a subsidiary role to the political official, because the latter one cannot be replaced by a soldier or military representative.
The military (both the Ethiopian National Imperial Guard and the Ethiopian Gendarmerie) use to a great extent mobile field headquarters and command centres meshed in the community, primarily designed to support the local communities in their efforts against terrorism and to provide extra muscle when their efforts are outgunned by the enemy.

A layered approach

In order to deal with the complex features of the Ethiopian society and security needs, the Ethiopian public security apparatus is structured on three tiers of law enforcement and internal security organizations.
At the Imperial level, the Ethiopian Gendarmerie and the Ethiopian National Imperial Guard provide highly mobile and specialized resources, as well as general police services in the two Autonomous Cities. The Ethiopian Gendarmerie has units and commands down to the Woreda boundaries, in order to being able to directly support territorial communities.
At the Provincial level, the relevant command of the Fascist Guard organizes and operates both the relevant Special Police Force and the collection of village, clan and community militias under the aegis of the Ethiopian Fascist Front and of the local Fascist Party; each Fascist Guard Provincial Command directly operates the Special Police Force (Amharic: ልዩ የፖሊስ ኃይል Liyu YePolīsi ḫayili, Italian: Forza Speciale di Polizia) in order to perform counterterrorism and security operations. The Ethiopian Gendarmerie has at the provincial level its highest territorial echelons, in charge of providing general support and of organize the law enforcement activities in villages and communities.
The "territorial" level mainly affects remmote villeges and rural areas: in each territorial community a Gendarmerie Zonal Command exercises overall supervision, while in each traditional polity the local militia is in charge of providing both security and law enforcement, and to support criminal/security operations carried out by Provincial and Imperial organizations. The lower level of crime investigation, prevention and law enforcement are placed under the local polity's administration, which is authorised to imprison, investigate and prosecute offenders who infringe less serious Imperial laws or local laws.

Special Police Forces

All 13 Provinces (but not the Cities) in Ethiopia have their own Special Police Force in order to perform counterterrorism and security operations, including operating checkpoints and patrolling border areas, as well as being used against demonstrations. These Special Police Forces are subject to the respective chief of the Fascist Guard Commander and relevant Governor. Special police forces are not only responsible for fighting terrorism, but also for protecting external borders and for handling general security challenges in the region. A number of government actors are tasked with protecting the border, including the Ethiopian Gendarmerie, ENDF and Special police forces.
Special police forces are highly visible in the streets. They operated in teams of two or more, and are armed with automatic rifles and various types of striking weapons. Special police forces are also have access to heavy weapons like machine guns, while their vehicles are typically pickups.
Special police forces' training is primarily of a military nature. After the completion of a 6-month of basic military and guerrilla tactics training, recruits are graduated during a ceremony dense of patriotic rethoric.

Relationship between the Ethiopian Fascist Front and state security forces

At the heart of the security organization in Ethiopia lies the fact that challenges to the rule of the Ethiopian Fascist Front are either disabled or suppressed. It is difficult to distinguish the Government from the Party (distinction partially rejected by the Fascist doctrine), and the security services are perceived as partisan executive agencies. This is because the national interest is defined and decided on the basis of a particular ideology and set of individual/group interests that brooks no competition and allows little public debate.

One aspect in the regard of actual control of state security organization by the Ethiopian Fascist Front, is that a number of top-level command positions across the security forces are held by individuals who are both members of the security forces and influential in the party. This creates overlap between political and security responsibilities as well as informal lines of accountability. Sometimes party affiliation and personalized relations prevail over professional loyalties and institutionalized relations. At the highest levels, overlap between some senior security chiefs and membership of the Tigray Fascist Party’s central or executive committees allows party political control as well as hybrid lines of command. Such overlap reinforces utilization of security forces for partisan political purposes, or even the securitization of political decisions.

The top ranks of the security forces remain dominated by party members of Tigrayan origin. Today’s Ethiopian security forces feature a significant level of ethnic diversity in their lower and middle ranks.‍ However, Tigrayan dominance at the top does appear to be reflective of the interests of the party.

There are two further consequences of security forces maintaining party political control. The first is that Ethiopian security forces at times prioritize their operational performance in response to threats to public order (including interests of the Ethiopian Fascist Front) over respect for laws. Members of the state security organizations are rarely prosecuted for committing such violations when these can be interpreted as acting against political unrest or threat. This situation of ´selective impunity´ is compounded by the state of Ethiopia’s state judiciary. The second issue is corruption. Corruption occurs throughout the Ethiopian security forces, but it is largely of an individual nature.

General organization

The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is a complex organization, structured in order to be able to function indpendently and to perform a wide range of missions. The Ethiopian Gendarmerie Corps is a military corps subordinate to the Directorate General of Public Security and organised on a territorial basis for law-enforcement missions. The territorial organization represents the core of the institution; outside the territorial organization, there are three special Divisions: the Specialist Units Division (specialist investigative skills, based in Bahir Dar), the Mobile Division (mass maneuver and territorial support, based in Harare) and the Central Investigative Division (organized crime and subversive activities, based in Auasa).
The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is in charge for all policing affairs, with the Provincial Special Police Forces being auxiliary bodies.

The Minister of Interior has the power to direct the Gendarmerie’s general activities, to Commandant General, Deputy Commandant-General and Provincial Commanders, to examine and approve action plans and studies submitted to it concerning structure, tasks and human resource development of the Gendarmerie. The Minister, who is a member of the ruling elite, is given the responsibility of directing the Gendarmerie’s general activities, approve its structure, tasks and human resource development, and has great influence in the process of presenting police plan and budget.

The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is an Armed Force directly under the Government of the Emperor; for purely functional purposes, it is under the guidance of the Minister of Interior and of the Provincial Governors.

Higher Command

At its top, the Gendarmerie is headed by the Higher Command, consisting of the Commandant General (a Lieutenant General), of the Deputy Commandant and of the Chief of Staff. The Chief of Staff directs, coordinates and supervises all activities of the force, while the Deputy Commandant directly handles administrative matters. The Higher Command directly supervises subordinate support bodies. The whole Higher Command, reminiscent of the Carabinieri General Command, is based in Addis Abeba. Deputy Commandant: supervises the logistic bodies and ensures connection between them and the General Staff.

  • Director of Administration Service;
  • Director of Health Service;
  • Director of Training Command;
  • Director of Engineering Command;
  • Director of Procurement & Property Administration Service;
  • Director of the motor pool;
  • Veterinary Commission.

Staff of the Higher Command of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie

The Staff of the Higher Command of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie ist the executive organ tasked to apply general orders of the Commandant-General and general directives of other bodies. It is led by the Chief of Staff of the Higher Command of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie and includes five Departments.

The Chief of Staff of the Higher Command of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie is a Brigadier General tasked of being the chief consultant and collaborator of the Commandant-General, on which he directly depends. As Chief of Staff, he represents the Commandant General and issues orders in his name, when authorized, and has some departments and units under his direct dependencies: the Secretariat, the Autonomous Unit of the Higher Command and the Head of the Spiritual Assistance Service (military chaplains).

The Deputy Chief of Staff assists the Chief of Staff, directs the provision of expenditure items to of the Heads of the Department, presides and coordinates the activity of the working and study groups for the study of problems of primary interest to the Gendarmerie. The Deputy Chief of Staff directly manages the National Recruitment Centre.

Central Investigative Division

Directly subordinate to the Commandant-General, the Central Investigative Division contains investigative bodies tasked with special duties operate at the central level:

  • Central Security Investigation Unit: it has the role in directing police criminal activities through Provincial branch offices;
  • Police Intelligence and Security Unit (commonly known as Mist‘ir Zebagna, i.e. "secret guard", shifting from the old designation of patrols): it has the role in carrying out police couterinsurgency actitivities;
  • Central Economic Inveestigation Unit (commonly known as Arada Zebagna, i.e. "market guard"): it investigates economic crimes, particularly smuggling and other forms of illicit commerce;
  • Fascist Operations Coordinating Committee: it is a Fascist Front body, which cooperates with the Gendarmerie in battling smuggling and economic sabotage.

The Central Security Investigation Unit is subdivided into its four Groups: Central Information Group, Crime Prevention Group, Criminal Investigation Group and Special Security Group (in charge for political police).

Mobile Division

The Mobile Emergency Gendarmerie is always deployed in robust units.

The Mobile Emergency Gendarmerie is the paramilitary branch of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie tasked with the maintenance of public order, quelling riots and providing mobile and cohesive support to the territorial organization or other branches of the Gendarmerie or of the local units of the Fascist Guard (the Ethiopian branch of the M.V.S.N.). The mobile organization consists of several Battalions deployed in the various Provinces and Autonomous Cities. Battalions depend on the relevant Regiment (responsible of providing administrative support and management), which are in turn grouped into the Mobile Division.
As of 2015 there are 24 Battalions grouped into 8 Regiments; alongside, there is the 9th Regiment.

  • 1st Regiment "Ogaden" - headquartered in Giggiga.
    • 1st Battalion - headquartered in Giggiga;
    • 2nd Battalion - headquartered in Gabredarre;
    • 3rd Battalion - headquartered in Gode.
  • 2nd Regiment "East Oromia" - headquartered in Goba;
    • 4th Battalion - headquartered in Goba;
    • 5th Battalion - headquartered in Asba Littoria;
    • 6th Battalion - headquartered in Neghelli.
  • EtioGend - AB Regiment.png 3rd Regiment "Addis Abeba" - headquartered in Addis Abeba;
    • 7th Battalion - headquartered in Addis Abeba;
    • 8th Battalion - headquartered in Addis Abeba;
    • 9th Battalion - headquartered in Adama.
  • 4th Regiment "West Oromia" - headquartered in Lechemti;
    • 10th Battalion - headquartered in Lechemti;
    • 11th Battalion - headquartered in Gore;
    • 12th Battalion - headquartered in Gimbi.
  • EtioGend - Amhara Regiment.png 5th Regiment "Amhara" - headquartered in Bahar Dar;
    • 13th Battalion - headquartererd in Bahar Dar;
    • 14th Battalion - headquartered in Gondar;
    • 15th Battalion - headquartered in Dessiè.
  • 6th Regiment "North" - headquartered in Semera;
    • 16th Battalion - headquartered in Semera;
    • 17th Battalion - headquartered in Macallè;
    • 18th Battalion - headquartered in Adua.
  • 7th Regiment "East" - headquartered in Dire Daua;
    • 19th Battalion - headquartered in Dire Daua;
    • 20th Battalion - headquartered in Harar;
    • 21st Battalion - headquartered in Harar.
  • 8th Regiment "South" - headquartered in Auasa;
    • 22nd Battalion - headquartered in Auasa;
    • 23rd Battalion - headquartered in Irgalem;
    • 24th Battalion - headquartered in Gambela.

9th Regiment "Support"

The 9th Regiment "Support" is the command which groups elite units and highly specialized organzations. The 9th Regiment "Support" is headquartered in Addis Abeba and includes:

  • Tracker combat team;
  • Police Anti-Terrorist Unit;
  • 1st Police Field Force Support Battalion;
  • 2nd Police Field Force Support Battalion;
  • Urban Emergency Unit.

The Support Battalions support the Gendarmerie in rural problem areas as well as in urban emergencies. The Support Battalions, in particular, have training and selection consisting of 3 phases culminating latterly in 6 months or 24 weeks training. Emphasis in selection depended on extreme physical fitness and aggression, mental strength in decision making and problem solving under extreme duress. Each Company is independent with its own vehicles, stores, ammunition, medical supplies, tents etc., being therefore highly mobile.

The Fascist Guard Tracking Unit is a Fascist Guard reserve unit established to support professional trackers. Their tracking methods are based on the traditional skills and techniques of the Ethiopian peoples.

Training Command

The Training Command is directly subordinated to the Deputy Commandant-General. Training Schools are established through the country, in order to provide an additional manpower reserve if strictly needed. As of 2017, there are three Training Schools: Troops Training School in Dire Daua; Subofficers Schools in Harar and Specialist Training Centre in Sendafa.

Specialist Training Centre

The Specialist Training Centre is a public institution of higher education in Ethiopia dedicated to training Gendarmes belonging to specialist units and to offering higher eductation in security-related subjects also to other personnel. Its main campus is located in Sendafa, a town 38 kilometres north of Addis Ababa, while other facilities are placed in Dire Daua. The centre is also responsible for the establishment of Gendarmerie music, theatre, sport and other clubs.

Officers training

Officers of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie are recruited through the Italian Military Academy (together with the Army, CC.RR. and M.V.S.N. Students). At the end of the two-year period, students are appointed Second Lieutenants. The studies continue for another three years at the Carabinieri Officers School, after which the Second Lieutenant achieves his degree in "Internal and External Security Sciences" and, on a selected basis, also that in "Jurisprudence" (in addition to the normal military subjects taught both at the Military Academy and at the Carabinieri Officers School).

Territorial organization

The Territorial Organization contains 80 percent of the force and is organized hierarchically in the Provincial Commands. Each of the 13 Provinces and the 3 Autonomous Cities has, for the carrying out of the law enforcement activity, a Provincial Directorate for the Public Security and of a Provincial Gendarmerie Command.
Provincial Gendarmerie Commanders in each of the 16 Provinces and Cities (headed by a Major General each) work in conjunction with the Provincial Governors, but for the prevailing part Addis Abeba centrally directs administration. Under the 16 Provincial and City Commands there are 77 Zonal and 770 Woreda commands, headed by Colonels and Captains/Majors respectively. The civilian Directorates of Public Security (both central and provincial ones) deal with administrative-political aspects of the police activities in support of the Ethiopian Government and of the Provincial Governors, while Gendarmerie commanders are the technical-operative authorities.

Provincial Gendarmerie Command

The 16 Gendarmerie Provincial and City Commands are the highest territorial echelons and are in charge of providing general support to operational units and command, as well as of ensuring liasion with the civilian security officials; they operate on the hierarchical and functional dependencies of the Higher Command, also to carry out decentralized organizational and administrative functions and it is involved in local personnel and resources planning and administration.
Although the Provincial Gendarmerie Commands receive directives from the Governor of their province, they remain under the direct command of the Commandant-General. However, the Provincial Gendarmerie Commanders work in collaboration with the provincial governors to play a significant role in keeping peace and security in the provinces.
The Provincial Gendarmerie Command is responsible for coordinating and monitoring all units in the relevant Province, even outside the territorial chain of command. The Provincial Command performs the command functions for all Corps services and units which are not specifically separated from it: however, the Provincial Gendarmerie Command, unless specifically tasked to do so, does not carry out police activities or external investigations.
The Provincial Gendarmerie Commander, a Major General, carries out the functions of running the directives of the Commandant General, co-ordinating the activities of the Provincal Command with those of the central offices. The Provincial Gendarmerie Commander, if authorized by the Commandant General, can establish provisional units and groups in order to achieve specific results. The Provincial Gendarmerie Commander is supported a staff consisting of:

  • Human Resources Office;
  • Operations Office: it has the role in directing criminal investigation activities in the Province;
  • Information Office;
  • Provincial Security Investigation Branch: it has the role in directing police counterinsurgency activities in the Province.
  • Training-Education Office;
  • Logistics Office;
  • Command Company;
  • Administrative Service;
  • Administrative and Social Police Liason Office;
  • Military Chaplain;
  • Provincial Depot.

The Addis Abeba, Harar and Dire Daua City Commands are titled City Guard (Amharic: የከተማ ጥበቃ, Yeketama Zebegna).

Provincial Depot

The Provincial Depot is a permanently manned, protected storage and mantainance base, used to support regional forces and dedicated to logistical operations. The Depot is located in the same city of Provincial Command. It is also where soldiers and officers awaiting discharge or postings are based, and where injured Gendarmes return to full fitness after discharge from hospital before returning to full duty.

Zonal Commands

The 77 Zonal Commands are in charge of both security and police duties, in order to ensure a steady repressive activity when the phoenomenon is still contained in a relatively small area. Their responsibilities include mainly logistics support and other functions; they also provide the coordination of the Corps activities in the boundaries of the subordinate commands, in the allocation of their personnel, for extraordinary tasks, for special military, public security or public order requirements, if necessary in conjunction with the military authorities.
The primary mission of the Zonal Command is to ensure the maintenance of order and public security in the Zone. In each Zone, the local Commander exercises all activities of security and administrative police, acts that result in such ordinances, injunctions, permits, licenses, permits.
Zonal Commands include a variety of offices, some of which depend on two Divisions: the Criminal Investigations Division and Administrative and Social Police Division. It is to note that, while the Criminal Investigation Division is under an unitary command and direction, the Administrative Division is composed of unconnected offices. The Operations Office is the body of the Zonal Command responsible for receiving and relaying information and records throughout the area of responsibility. It interacts with the units at that time engaged on the ground, from the detective squads to stations. The Operations Rooms are located in each subordinate headquarter, to build the network to support the Operations Office.

Ranks and insignia

The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is led by a Lieutenant General; when the Italian Lieutenant General conducts his inspections and visits, he wears his Italian uniform. From a graphic point of view, the officer insignia pattern are loosely inspired to the Italian trend, with the Italian Towered Crown replaced by an Ethiopian Imperial Crown. All officer rank insignia feature the triangular insignia as basic component.
As a whole, the Ethiopian Gendarmerie is a State military corps, like the Royal Police Corps, and is part of the Italian military system, although its State is Ethiopia, and not the Kingdom of Italy strictu sensu.

Officers

Gendarmes are part of all-Ethiopia services and, although enlisted Gendarmes after their conscription can be expected to serve in their native Province, officers cannot expect any fixed assignment.
Officers of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie are recruited through the Italian Military Academy (together with the Army, CC.RR. and M.V.S.N. Students). At the end of the two-year period, students are appointed Second Lieutenants. The studies continue for another three years at the Carabinieri Officers School, after which the Second Lieutenant achieves his degree in "Internal and External Security Sciences" and, on a selected basis, also that in "Jurisprudence" (in addition to the normal military subjects taught both at the Military Academy and at the Carabinieri Officers School).

For Promotion to the Rank of Time in rank for Normal Promotion
Lieutenant 2 years as Second Lieutenant
Captain 5 years as First Lieutenant
Major 5 years as Captain
Lieuntenant Colonel 4 years as Major
Colonel 4 years as Lieutenant Colonel
Brigadier General 4 years as Colonel
Major General 5 years as Brigadier General
Lieuntenant General 5 years as Major General

Promotion of Gendarmerie officers to any rank below the rank of Brigadier General is considered by the Board established by the Commandant-General of the Ethiopian Gendarmerie. In this regard the Commandant-General has the discretion to refer or not to refer to such a Board the consideration of Second Lieutenants to the rank of Lieutenant. The promotion of General Officers was considered by a different Board comprised of officers selected by the Minister of Interior from the list of General Officers submitted to him by the Commandant-General. The appointment of a person to the position of Lieutenant Generals is approved by the Emperor, which largely depends on the relationship of such a person with the Emperor rather than the knowledge and expertise of such a person in policing in comparison with other people.

Insignia

Ethiopian Gendarmerie military officers ranks and insignia
Ethiopian Gendarmerie rank
(Official transcription only)
Bemeto Betach Meto Aleqa Aleqa Shaleqa Leftenant-Kol Kolonel Brigedar Janaral Mejor Janaral Leftenant Janaral
English translation Second Lieutenant Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General
Royal Police Corps rank
(also Italian translation)
Sottotenente Tenente Capitano Maggiore Tenente Colonnello Colonnello Brigadier Generale Maggior Generale Tenente Generale
Corresponding Army rank (Italian) Sottotenente Tenente Capitano Maggiore Tenente Colonnello Colonnello Generale di Brigata Generale di Divisione Generale di Corpo d'Armata
Corresponding Army rank (British) Second Lieutenant Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier Major General Lieutenant General
Shoulder board insignia Sottotenente Etiopia.png Tenente Etiopia.png Capitano Etiopia.gif Maggiore Etiopia.png Tenente Colonnello Etiopia.png Colonnello Etiopia.gif Generale di Brigata Etiopia.png Generale di Divisione Etiopia.png Generale di Corpo d'Armata Etiopia.gif


Ethiopian Gendarmerie Warrant Officers ranks and insignia
Ethiopian Gendarmerie rank
(Official transcription only)
Mekonnu Tiezaz 1 Mekonnu Tiezaz 2 Mekonnu Tiezaz 3
Royal Police Corps rank Maresciallo di P.S. Maresciallo Capo di P.S. Maresciallo Maggiore di P.S.
Italian translation Sottufficiale Sottufficiale Capo Sottufficiale Maggiore
English translation Warrant Officer Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Major
Corresponding Army rank (Italian) Maresciallo Maresciallo Capo Maresciallo Maggiore
Corresponding Army rank (British) Warrant Officer Class Two Warrant Officer Second Class Warrant Officer First Class
Shoulder board insignia Maresciallo Gendarmeria Etiope.gif Maresciallo Superiore Gendarmeria Etiope.gif Maresciallo Capo Gendarmeria Etiope.gif


Ethiopian Gendarmerie Enlisted ranks and insignia
Ethiopian Gendarmerie rank
(Official transcription only)
Polis Bemejemeriyaw Polis Alemawi Bemejemeriyaw Alemawi Yehmsa Aleqa Yehmsa Aleqa Uana
Royal Police Corps rank Agente Agente Scelto Appuntato Appuntato Capo Vicebrigadiere Brigadiere
English translation Policeman Policeman First Class Corporal First Corporal Sergeant Sergeant Major
Italian translation Poliziotto Poliziotto di Prima Classe Caporale Primo Caporale Sergente Sergente Maggiore
Corresponding Army rank (Italian) Soldato Caporale Caporale maggiore Caporale Capo Sergente Sergente Maggiore
Corresponding Army rank (British) Private Lance Corporal Corporal Sergeant Staff Sergeant Staff Sergeant

(senior echelon)

Sleeve insignia No insignia Gendarmeria Libica - Gendarme scelto.png Gendarmeria Libica - Caporale.png Gendarmeria Libica - Caporal Maggiore.png Gendarmeria Libica - Sergente.png Gendarmeria Libica - Sergente Maggiore.png
Shoulder board insignia Controspallina truppa Etiopia.png

Uniforms

Ethiopian Gendarmerie have an operational/everyday uniform, consisting of a blue/gray camouflage battledress and a blue beret, and a formal wear, cut along the Italian National Royal Army lines. The Ethiopian Gendarmerie is part of the State military forces of the Italian Empire; therefore, its members wear the Military Star on formal wear.

See also