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President is a title for a national official, usually a head of state. Presidents are typically civilians, though in military-dominated states they can also be current or former military leaders. Rarely are presidents considered monarchs or royals, though in countries with both a monarch and a president the president can belong to a noble class. The term presidential republic refers to a country with a civilian head of state, usually styled as president. President can also refer to a presiding officer in an official body, such as president of the Senate.

Presidents are commonly elected to their posts, but the meaning of the title itself is rather flexible as many dictators style themselves "president" of their countries. Presidents can be heads of state, heads of state and government, or can share governmental responsibilities with other national leaders. A presidential system is a form of government wherein the president or similarly titled official shares power with the legislature, in many cases wielding much more power and influence.

The successor to a president is usually called the vice president.

List of countries with a president as head of state